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Masterarbeit, 2009, 111 Seiten
I. Table of Contents
II. Index of Abbreviations
III. Index of Figures
IV. Index of Tables
2. Theory Mobile Marketing
2.1 Introduction: Trends in Mobile Marketing
2.2 Definition and Differentiation of Mobile Marketing
2.3 Characteristics of Mobile Marketing
2.4 Mobile Marketing Instruments
2.5 Goals of Mobile Marketing Campaigns
2.6 Framework for the Application of Mobile Marketing
2.6.1 Technological Aspects
2.6.2 Legal Aspects
2.6.3 Customer Aspects
2.6.4 Economical and Organizational Aspects
2.7 Mobile Marketing Strategies
2.7.1 Pull Approach
2.7.2 Push Approach
2.8 Conclusion and Implications
3. Theory Trade Fairs
3.1 Trade Fair Basics
3.1.1 Definition of Trade Fairs
3.1.2 Trade Fair Functions
3.2 Participants of the Trade Fair Market
3.2.1 Trade Fair Organizers
3.3 Conclusion and Implications
4. The Marketing Mix of Trade Fair Organizers
4.1 Definition Marketing Mix
4.2 Policies within the Marketing Mix of Trade Fair Organizers
4.2.1 Product & Assortment Policy
4.2.2 Service Policy
4.2.3 Communication Policy
4.2.4 Distribution Policy
4.2.5 Pricing Policy
4.3 Conclusion and Implications
5. Integration of Mobile Marketing in the Marketing Mix of Trade Fair Organizers
5.1 Introduction of the Survey: Current application of Mobile Marketing in the Trade Fair Industry
5.2 Applicability of Mobile Marketing in the Marketing Mix
5.2.1 Applicability of Mobile Marketing in the Product and Assortment Policy
5.2.2 Applicability of Mobile Marketing in the Service Policy
5.2.3 Applicability of Mobile Marketing in the Communication Policy
5.2.4 Applicability of Mobile Marketing in the Distribution Policy
5.3 Assessment of the Applicability of Mobile Marketing within the Marketing Mix of Trade Fair Organizers
5.3.1 Survey Results: Evaluation of the Importance of the Mobile Marketing Functions for the Trade Fair Marketing
5.3.2 Evaluation of the Applicability of Mobile Marketing in the Marketing Mix before, during, and after the Trade Fair
5.4 Conclusion and Outlook
6. Executive Summary
Articles and Press releases
Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten
Figure 1: The trade fair economy
Figure 2: Top ten exhibitor goals
Figure 3: Approach of this master thesis
Figure 4: Mobile Portal dmexco (Koelnmesse)
Figure 5: Mobile Portal/Mobile Festival Guide Gamescom (Koelnmesse)
Figure 6: Mobile Exhibitor Catalogue IMB (Koelnmesse)
Figure 7: Mobile Navigation Service: Mobile Exhibition Guide (Koelnmesse)
Figure 8: The 3rd generation (2007) of Spotme
Figure 9: Mobile tagging on a billboard
Figure 10: Receiving content via Bluetooth from smart posters
Figure 11: Survey Results: Mobile Webpage
Figure 12: Survey Results: Mobile Information Service
Figure 13: Survey Results: Mobile Advertising
Figure 14: Survey Results: Mobile Applications
Figure 15: Survey Results: Mobile Ticketing
Figure 16: Survey Results: Mobile Payment
Figure 17: Survey Results: Importance of Mobile Marketing for marketing functions - now
Figure 18: Survey Results: Importance of Mobile Marketing for marketing functions - in the near future
Table 1: Top ten visitor goals
Table 2: Economic and non-economic communication policy goals
Table 3: Potential of the mobile marketing instruments to achieve exhibitor goals
Table 4: Potential of the mobile marketing instruments to achieve visitor goals
Table 5: Academics’ use of mobile advertising
Table 6: Academics’ use of mobile marketing
Table 7: Overview of general exhibitor goals
Trade fair organizers face a number of ongoing changes and an intensified intra- and inter-industry competition that reshape the structure of their markets and value chains.
Until the 80s, trade fair organizers had a huge market and little competition. They were solely administering their spaces. On this seller’s market trade fair organizers could pick the companies they would allow to exhibit at their fairs. Since then, more and more trade fair organizations have entered the market and invested heavily in new venues and hall capacities. The traditional venue owners increased their hall capacities tremendously and new regional venues emerged in the Near East and Asian markets.
The driver of the inter-industrial competition is the increasing number of communication, information, and sales opportunities (such as road shows, in-house exhibitions or virtual information channels like the internet) that constitute alternatives compared to the cost intensive trade fair participation.
These developments have made the market a buyer’s market. Consequently, the customer group’s requirements towards trade fair efficiency are getting increasingly higher. Trade fair organizers need to face these developments and rethink and reshape their marketing strategies and respective marketing mix to match them to the new environment in order to stay competitive. They need to implement instruments with which they can improve the communication and service offer and thus satisfy the customer’s requirements.
Mobile marketing is such an instrument. It is the new trend in the modern direct marketing that offers numerous possibilities for personalized customer communication and the provision of an increased service portfolio via mobile devices. Mobile marketing is the answer to the increasingly mobile society as it allows a location and time independent reach of the customer. The question if and to which extend mobile marketing can be applied in the marketing mix of trade fair organizers is the research objective of this thesis.
The approach to reach this goal is illustrated in figure 3 in the appendix and will be set as follows: chapter two will focus on the theoretical basics of mobile marketing in order to illustrate its potentials, capabilities and limitations. In chapter three the basics about trade fairs, its functions and participants are introduced. The analysis of the goals and needs of the exhibitors and visitors is the focus of this chapter as it serves as a starting point for the application of mobile marketing. The fourth chapter will focus on the traditional marketing mix of trade fair organizers. It will give an overview of each policy, its functions, goals and the commonly applied instruments. Within the framework of this marketing mix the potential of the mobile marketing instruments to create a value added for the customers as well as for the trade fair organizer will be analyzed in chapter five. By the means of examples and supported by the results of a survey that was conducted in the course of this thesis the chapter will present possibilities and evaluate the applicability of the mobile marketing instruments within the marketing mix of trade fair organizers. The final assessment considers the applicability for each policy and each trade fair phase (before, during, and after the event). The chapter ends with a conclusion and outlook for the future development.
The thesis is based on numerous publications, literature, internet sources and a survey about the current use of mobile marketing in the trade fair industry that was conducted in the course of the thesis. In literature and practice mobile marketing is a relatively new topic (especially in the B2B market) and there is little unanimity about definitions or its application in the marketing mix.
Trade fairs are considered in various publications though mostly from the perspective of the exhibitors which use trade fairs as part of their communication strategy. Peters (1992) and Taeger (1993) have first analyzed the marketing mix of trade fair organizers. Among the basic literature about trade fair organizers are also the Handbuch Messemanagement (2003) and the Kölner Kompendium (2005) that include short descriptions and developments of the marketing mix of trade fair organizers.
The potentials and applications of mobile marketing in the marketing mix of trade fair organizers have not been researched comprehensively. Until now, only few articles and examples mention its application.
In this chapter the basics of mobile marketing will be described. After a short introduction of trends in mobile marketing the term is defined thoroughly and its main characteristics, capabilities as well as its limitation will be introduced. This constitutes the basis for the analysis of the applicability of mobile marketing in the marketing mix for trade fair organizers.
Only a few years ago mobile marketing was exclusively understood as advertising printed on moving objects like trucks and moving trade fairs. Nowadays, it is commonly implied as marketing via mobile channels. Its market is still in its infancy and there is a huge growth potential: worldwide there are more than 3 billion mobile subscriptions – far more than for any other medium like TV or internet. In Germany, for example, the penetration rate of mobile subscriptions is statistically more than 100%. Leading market research institutes calculated that mobile services are used already by more than 50% of mobile phone owners and by 2011 worldwide half a billion people will use the mobile internet.
Mobility has become a characteristic of our society. Following this trend mobile communication has increased in its significance: the mobile phone represents spontaneity and thus the new zeitgeist: anywhere, anytime, always on-line.
Even in developing countries mobile communication plays a role. Since the building of landlines would be too expensive the population in countries like Uzbekistan switched to mobile phones right away. In South Africa the number of mobile subscriptions increased since 2000 from 20 to 400 million. In Japan – the forerunner of the mobile world, the manifold applicability of mobile devices have found their way in the everyday life: the medium is used to pay, to play games or music, to use it as a ticket, to send and receive text or audio-visual messages, to surf in the web, to write blogs, to send emails, to twitter, to use the weather service, to get directions and recipes, and of course to make calls.
Since Barak Obama has embraced digital and mobile media in his campaign to get massive attention by providing downloads (PDFs, ringtones, videos, wallpapers) or up-to-date information the mobile channel has been “knighted”.
This is why it is not surprising that more and more companies benefit from this new marketing channel that allows targeted, customized and direct communication with the customer. New value-adding services can be creating that support the interaction with the customer and create higher customer satisfaction and loyalty.
In the wake of mass-media-caused ‘information overload’ the special features of the mobile channel that enable the implementation of one-to-one marketing make mobile marketing one of the most attractive and efficient marketing forms of the future. In Germany this trend has been recognized: mobile marketing campaigns have increased by 600% in 2008 compared to 2007.
A literature analysis shows that mobile marketing is often reduced on the communicative elements and do not align it with the comprehensive definition of marketing itself: Various authors use the term mobile marketing as synonym to mobile advertising, wireless (digital) advertising, mobile marketing communication, wireless marketing etc. (see table 5 and table 6 in the appendix).
The other definition approach – which will be used in this thesis – defines mobile marketing in a more holistic manner and is rooted in the definition of traditional marketing including all marketing instruments. Thus, to define mobile marketing first the traditional marketing definition is reviewed. Marketing in the sense of the market-oriented corporate governance is one of the most relevant guidelines for modern companies and affects the entire entrepreneurial thinking and behaviour. Through the coordination of all market-oriented activities and by exploiting all of the marketing tools the individual competitiveness of an enterprise will be achieved in the long term.
Therefore, the American Marketing Association describes marketing as…
“…the activity, set of institutions, and processes for creating, communicating, delivering, and exchanging offerings that have value for customers, clients, partners, and society at large.”
It follows suite that the practice of mobile marketing embodies
“…the mobile enactment of activities, institutions and processes that support marketers in their pursuit to communicate, deliver, and exchange offers that have value for customers, clients, partners, and society at large.”
To describe the term more precisely this definition will be clarified deconstruct briefly:
- Mobile enactment means using mobile channels and therefore refers to the collection of companies and systems — wireless networks, mobile phones, application providers, marketers, and so on — that make it possible for a marketer to interact directly with an individual through a mobile device or wirelessly enabled terminal . The term mobile device is used to include devices that do not have voice capabilities, such as a Sony PlayStation Portable or Apple’s iPod, etc.
- Delivering means providing products or services to customers.
- Exchanging means swapping value. Often, products and services are exchanged for money but generally anything can be swapped.
- Offerings are the products and services produced by an organization.
- Value refers to a sense of worth. A product has a value when the item’s worth exceeds what it costs to obtain, consume, or use it.
The question to be considered is: why should the user turn away from the convenience and routine of using the PC and turn to the small and inconvenient mobile device? This question finds its answer in the characteristics of the mobile channel. The mobile marketing instruments have very peculiar characteristics that differentiate it from any traditional media – the possibilities of connectivity:
- Location-independence: contacting the customer on a mobile device is possible everywhere.
- Time-independence: mobile devices are seldom switched off and are almost always carried.
- Personalization: mobile devices are commonly used by only one person and can be targeted by the SIM (Subscriber Identity Module) card. So marketers have the possibility of personalizing the messages according to the special demands, requirements and interests of the receiver which leads to higher relevancy of the message. Thereby, wastages are reduced and marketing activities are more effective.
- Interactivity: the mobile device is an interactive device that allows the receiver to react instantaneously. This bidirectional communication strengthens the communication process.
- Locatability: technologies like the Global Positioning System (GPS), Cell of Origin (COO) or others allow locating the mobile device and thus make it possible for the marketer to adapt the service or information accordingly. Commonly, this feature is used for services the customer demands (pull-services) like location-based information or services (directions, location finder, etc.).
- Time-based: just as messages can be based on the location they can be based on the exact time of day when the message is received unlike emails.
- Emotionalizing: mobile devices are an integral component of the everyday life. They are very personalized and are highly connected to the user. If this emotional connection can be associated with the marketed products their marketing is even more effective.
These mobile channel features differentiate it from the stationary services. They allow highly increased targeting possibilities: the right customer can be reached at the right point of time at the right location. Thus they increase the relevance for the user highly and represent an additional benefit. However, mobile marketing is also limited by a number of factors like the size of the monitor and keys as well as lower data transmission rates, performance and memory. Nevertheless, as Odlyzko describes it, it is not the premium content but rather the connectivity that makes the competitive advantage compared to traditional media. An example for this is the success of the SMS: though limited in the amount of information it is still quick, targeted, personalized, context and even location-specific and thus delivers a great value to the receiver.
There are many ways to reach the customer via the mobile channel. This section describes the five most common applications that can be employed in mobile marketing campaigns: SMS, MMS, mobile web, mobile applications and near field communication methods.
SMS: The short messaging service commonly referred to as SMS is a 160-character alphanumeric digital message that can be sent to and from any mobile phone. Apart from the pure telephony the SMS is the oldest and also most used tool for mobile communication. It can be applied in various ways: deliver information, text alerts, tickets, newsletter, trigger a response, operate coupon programs, provide search capability or offer voting or market research services. Text messaging is the most effective mobile marketing method according to a US survey and with response rates of 70% it is also a lot higher than email response rates with only 30% or less.
MMS: Very similar is the Multimedia Messaging Service (MMS) which can include multimedia objects (images, audio, video, and/or rich text), often in a slideshow format.
Mobile Web: The term mobile web is used primarily to refer to browsing web sites on a mobile phone. The internet connection on a phone can also be used to power the data connection for installable applications. It allows users to log on to the mobile websites available in the web. Mobile websites are often created like portals that contain a compilation of different information or services optimized for the use with mobile devices. Thereby, marketing can be done either via the respective company’s mobile website, graphic banner ads or text ads on other mobile websites.
Mobile Applications: Mobile applications – or widgets – are small programs that can be downloaded onto the mobile device. They can either trigger a game, video or other application which can either serve as advertising, branding or providing services (entertainment, productivity, information, communication, travel guides, etc.).
QR-Codes: QR-Codes (Quick Response Codes) are 2-D-barcodes that represent the link from the mobile phone to the “world of things”. The codes can be scanned with the mobile phone integrated camera and decoded by special software. The information thus received links to websites or provides further data (business cards, tickets, coupons etc.). In Japan and Korea, the trendsetter in mobile marketing, they are commonly used to enhance traditional media like billboard advertisement.
Local Transmission Technologies : Also local transmission technologies can be used as mobile marketing instruments due to their low costs and high transmission rates. They can be used for proximity marketing – advertising content that can be distributed wirelessly. Bluetooth and WLAN can be used to download information or applications on the mobile device. Beyond that IrDA (Infrared Data Association), NFC (Near Field Communication) and RFID (Radio-frequency Identification) can be used for mobile payment and ticketing as well as enhancing billboards with additional data transfer. Proximity marketing is very effective since it allows cost free targeted communication with the customer. Bluetooth is available on about 96% of all mobile phones and with that the most common proximity marketing tool.
Mobile marketing can be used to offer new services to satisfy customer needs, advertise products and improve the image in order to acquire new customers and increase sales.
The customer service can be improved by offering new value-adding mobile services. This can be done in form of any informational or entertaining content provided via one of the methods described above.
The mobile channel can be used to distribute advertising, promotion campaigns and direct communication. Mobile advertising offers a timely way to promote products or services and as the mass marketing has not yet reached the mobile channel the customer attention and interest is comparatively high. Mobile marketing is a good method for customer acquisition when customers can be contacted in situations in which the company’s messages generate a high attention and interest, for example during trade fairs.
Mobile marketing can be used to cultivate and improve the positive perception of the company image , or the brand. The sheer provision of mobile elements influences the image positively, especially among a mobile affine and young target audience. Also mobile, interactive campaigns have the potential to cause a viral effect and thus increase the awareness.
Cross- or up-selling goals can be integrated in mobile service campaigns. The sales potential can be increased as product or service offers are launched in the right moment to the customer. Also, by including a response element in the mobile message the receiver can immediately take transactional steps.
Value-adding services as well as convenient and interactive communication are perceived as a quality features and improve thus the customer satisfaction. The application of mobile elements in the marketing mix can thus have a positive effect on customer loyalty.
In order to integrating the mobile channels in a comprehensive strategy optimally the general framework of mobile marketing must be analyzed profoundly. It consists of technological, legal, customer and economical aspects that need to be considered. These differing aspects carry risks and opportunities that are decisive for the success of mobile marketing.
The technological environment describes the overall technological standard of the target audience. The mobile services and channels must be useable by the target audience without excluding any (potential) customers. This can constitute a challenge to the marketer because of the multitude of used technologies and the lack of standardization. Both, the transmission technology and the platforms and types of mobile phones vary significantly. Moreover, the ephemerality and the dynamic change of technologies over the last years have made it difficult for provider and user to implement and accept mobile marketing.
The first and second generation of transmission technologies were slow and expensive and buffered the mobile hype of the first years. Now marketers and users have a more mature attitude towards using mobile devices and as the third generation of transmission technologies (wideband-CDMA and UMTS) comes with higher transmission rates mobile marketing can finally make its breakthrough.
Similar to the transmitter technologies the differing mobile devices and their operating systems must be considered. The size of the display and the keys as well as the performance, memory and access points (NFC/Bluetooth/RFID-capability e.g.) influence the applicability of mobile services. Additionally, the compatibility of different operation systems varies. Relevant systems are still Open Symbian by Nokia, Windows Mobile, OS X for the iPhone, Blackberry and Android. Though, there is no significant development in technology standardising, the newly sold mobile devices are multifunctional allrounders and meet the necessary requirements in terms of memory, display size, performance and user-friendliness and thus pave the way for an increased use of mobile marketing in the future.
Apart from being able to use the application from the mere technical perspective it is also important that the customer knows how to use the application. A solution to this would be offering a certain service via different channels in order to include all the (potential) customers.
Apart from the technological requirements the legal aspects must also be analyzed in order to successfully implement a mobile marketing strategy. Data protection laws related to sending messages to mobile devices or saving customer-specific data have to be considered when starting a mobile marketing campaign. Spam, the unsolicited, unwanted communication sent to mobile phones is regulated in many countries. In the EU, spam is regulated by the EC regulation 2002/58/EG, in the USA it is the U.S. CAN-SPAM Act of 2003. Typically the regulations include clear directives about the need of the consent of the receiver through opt-in and opt-out options. Close observation of the legal environment is necessary as it is constantly adapting to the new challenges posed by the mobile marketing environment. For example, the German consumer protection association (VZBV) is currently opening a procedure against social networks and their data protection guidelines.
The description of the customer aspects includes the general change of customer behaviour, the acceptance of mobile marketing and aspects concerning the international mobile marketing.
Within the uncounted possibilities of the technological innovations and protected by the legal framework the customer behaviour changes dynamically, creating new challenges for today’s marketer. High-end technology from yesterday will be adopted in the mass market of today. The societal change towards more and more digitalized and virtually presented information is affecting and influencing the way we communicate. Effectiveness, simplicity and convenience are the driver of this change and make high demands and expectations on communication and information delivery companies.
As consumers are increasingly mobile also the communication needs to adapt to this mobilization. Information, entertainment, navigation and other services are not required at one location, but consumed independent of the environment, life situation and time. At the same time mobile services are required to be individualized relating to the exact time, location and preferences of the consumer.
Beside these increasing requirements towards the technology (high-tech) customers demand the integrated use of these technologies satisfying the customer’s needs and without the alienation of the emotional and human side of the services (high-touch).
Personal information tends to be given out less cautiously if it allows the customer to access value-added services. This trend is shown in the behaviour towards the upcoming social communities like Twitter with its “buddy-finder”-application and Facebook, StudiVZ or MySpace where extensive private information is published. This development influences the acceptance rate and readiness to use mobile services.
Also, nowadays often the choice of using a product or service in different forms – physical, online or mobile is perceived as quality- or unique selling feature which increases the customer satisfaction and loyalty.
Beside the change of the general consumer behaviour towards a more mobile communication, the characteristics and attitudes of the specific target audience need to be analyzed. If mobile marketing is not accepted and integrated in the customer’s communication it cannot be effective. Thus, the acceptance constitutes a decisive factor in the adoption and success of mobile products and services. Kollmann describes acceptance as a dynamic process that consists of the relation of positive expectations and the adoption where the expectations are met. Bauer et al identified a number of factors that influence the acceptance of mobile marketing. The personal attitude towards mobile marketing is the strongest factor. Also personal characteristics like readiness for innovations and the level of knowledge about mobile services influence the acceptance of mobile marketing in a positive correlation. Thus especially (mobile) technology affine customers will accept and appreciate mobile marketing. Though, the mobile channel will only be used if the services are perceived valuable. The perception of risk of irritation and personal data abuse decreases the acceptance of mobile marketing. Consumers are still rather restrictive with private data if they do not see a benefit from sharing this data. That means that the company applying mobile marketing should explain the benefits of the services in detail. The customer must also have control over using and quitting the service.
Last but not least, acceptance is increased by the usability of the mobile device and its services. The higher the convenience, portability, simplicity and usability of mobile devices itself is the higher the acceptance of mobile marketing. Studies have shown that iPhone users were 66% more likely to respond to mobile ads than other mobile consumers. This is partly explained by their general affinity and the phone’s user friendliness.
Considering international aspects of mobile marketing is important if a substantial part of the target group is international. In developing countries the mobile phone can be the only wide-spread communication medium. This will imply a high importance for mobile marketing in these regions in the future. Among the developed countries European, North American, and some Asian market can be distinguished. While the Asian markets are very developed in the marketing exploitation of mobile technology, Europe and the USA are lagging behind some. As a result, the behaviour towards mobile services and technology used differs significantly. This results in differences of acceptance and usages.
An essential factor to implementing mobile marketing in the marketing mix is cost-value relation. Value can be realized by creating higher customer satisfaction and loyalty when offering a vast service portfolio to the customer that improves the overall quality. When a mobile marketing campaign is first realized the company can benefit from the first mover advantage and thus position their image as a sustainable, high end and customer oriented service company. As a side effect, providing mobile services that deliver very well-targeted information will decrease the need for queries. Therefore, the sales or information personnel can be rationalized or used at other points of the customer interaction process. Also print media can be rationalized while more and more digital information is distributed. In terms of sustainability and eco-friendliness companies can even promote this as `green´ communication.
The requisite to apply mobile marketing effectively is that customer data (phone number, personal data like interests, etc.) needs to be collected, saved and the permission of re-use needs given. This requires a continuing process as the database also needs to be updated frequently.
In order to economically benefit from the mobile marketing an important factor is the integration of this new marketing channel in the organizational processes. In order to offer mobile services an extensive investment in the IT-infrastructure is necessary. An alternative is a partnership with mobile solutions providers that offers the complete mobile service which makes the costs more transparent and decreases the operative and technical risk implementing the service. When offering this service it is necessary to create awareness and acceptance internally (employees) and externally (customers). Integrating the mobile channel increases the complexity for the organization and the customer. The modularization of the service portfolio – offering a basic service and additional modules on top – is a good way to keep the integration of this new channel simple and reduce the complexity. Basic modules and specific additional modules can be chosen by the customer groups according to their needs.
Basically, there are two broad approaches in delivering information and mobile services: push and pull. Pull means that the user requests (or “pulls”) certain information explicitly while any content that is sent unsolicited from the marketer is “pushed” through the channel.
Mobile channels are typically used when the user is in transit and faces different situations which can trigger certain needs. The pull-based approach is usually the first step in the customer communication. Link/Seidl identified four basic situations where information or services are pulled through the mobile channel by the customers: idle-time situation, seeking situation, emergency situation and quasi-stationary situation.
The idle-time situation describes the unproductive time where one does not work, for example during travelling. This is where value-adding mobile services can be offered. In the form of mobile services, information exchange, entertainment or transactions it can make this time productive again.
A situation that is marked by the situation-dependent need for a specific service or information is called seeking situation. Typically directions to certain locations or information about local gastronomy, sights, public transportation or the weather can be retrieved through mobile channels. The localizing technology – local based services (LBS) – to position the user geographically constitute the key to this service.
During emergency situations the user has an unforeseeable need for a service or information which is then demanded either automatically for example if a heart case is connected to a pacemaker and in an emergency triggers an alarm via the mobile device or when the emergency is articulated by the user.
If the user has the option of either using the mobile device or a stationary information device he/she is in a quasi-stationary situation. Mobile services can be an alternative when it is faster or easier to access the service though normally the stationary internet will be used for more heterogeneous and profound communication and information research.
This approach needs to be advertised and promoted via different media like print advertisements, billboards or alike to invite the user to get in contact.
Another approach is “pushing” the information through the mobile channel. Occasion-based services are commonly pushed to mobilize customers. They can be used to remind the customer of a special offer (early-bird deadline e.g.) or to offer an extra service or promotion such as a mobile coupon for price reduction. The user can also subscribe to services to receive information on a frequent basis (e.g. newsletters). This way the marketer can arouse attention and increase the customer acquisition.
Especially this form of advertising is subject to “permission marketing”. Permission marketing is a direct marketing strategy that is based on the explicit consent of the customer to receive messages (opt-in option). The receiver should always be able to revoke the permission (opt-out) and control the frequency of advertising. It should be easy and transparent even for laymen to decrease reservation towards mobile marketing. Also the data protection regulations must be kept transparent. In order to obtain the consent of the receiver the company must offer ways like registering, participating at sweepstakes or at the point-of-sale.
Again, it is essential to create a value to the customer through this campaign in order to leave a positive impression and reduce reactance. Concluding, the push approach and the connected permission marketing is a useful method for marketers to create involvement and product awareness among the target group.
Mobile marketing has unique features that distinguish it from other channels. (Potential) customers can be communicated with by individually referring to their demands in a consumer-, location-, time- and context-specific way. Thus, companies can offer the customer a wide range of additional services through which the company has the potential to realize a competitive advantage. This means that the marketers have to adapt to the new ways of communication as well. As a result of permission marketing customers choose the information they are willing to receive as opposed to many forms of traditional marketing like TV-commercials, internet-banners, etc. The mobile device is thus the universal information filter and manager.
This development is strongly influenced by the technology used. The new generation of mobile devices and transmission technology offers higher usability and faster transmission rates and thus supports the functions of mobile marketing. At the same time consumers are getting more comfortable with mobile applications and use them increasingly as the mobility of the society increases.
However, marketers have to be careful not to use this new channel extensively. There is always the risk of overestimating new technology in short term instead of planning and implementing the tool carefully and slowly for mutual benefit in the long term. A smooth and frictionless integration in the internal marketing processes and the external communication without intruding or irritating the customer must be the goal for successful mobile marketing.
One way to achieve this is by combining mobile marketing with traditional marketing media like billboards or TV commercials and integrating it in the overall communication or service campaign. This way the customers have the positive sensation of experiencing new technology which leads to sustainable product awareness and involvement with the product. Mobile marketing can thus even create a viral effect.
However, in order to achieve this goal the customers need to be aware of the extensive possibilities of mobile marketing which should be presented and promoted by the marketer.
In the following the basics about trade fairs, its main functions and participants are introduced. The structure and functioning of the trade fair as well as the goals and needs of the two main customer groups, exhibitors and visitors need to be analyzed as a starting point for the use of mobile marketing.
AUMA (Ausstellungs- und Messeausschuss der deutschen Wirtschaft e.V.), the German trade fair association and one of the most renowned organizations in this industry in Europe and UFI (Union de Foires Internationales), the international trade fair association have given a definition of trade fairs which goes along with the §64 GewO, the German industrial code and is most cited in the literature:
“Trade fairs are market events of a specific duration, held at intervals, at which a large number of companies present the main product range of one or more industry sectors and mainly sell, distribute or promote it on the basis of samples.”
This general definition includes the main characteristics though nowadays the main activities at trade fairs have shifted from the transactional activities towards pre- and post transactional communication. Ideally, trade fairs bring together an optimal representation of an industry’s supply and demand in an efficient way and make the dialogue between the business partners as well as press and politics possible. The unique characteristic is that the two customer groups, exhibitors and visitors are forming part of the product and are thus interdependent.
For exhibitors, and professional and visitors trade fairs are a marketing instrument that can potentially serve the comprehensive marketing functions. For private visitors trade fairs are information and market orientation events and can include entertaining features.
In this thesis, however, trade fairs will be considered from the perspective of the trade fair organizer and thus are defined as the analyzed and marketed product .
Compared to other marketing instruments trade fairs fulfil a wide range of marketing functions that can be categorized into three different groups: societal, macroeconomic and microeconomic functions.
From the societal perspective trade fairs offer a stage to present innovations, cause awareness about a certain topic and transfer knowledge and understanding within an international community. It can also be used as political stage because medial awareness can be very high (e.g. for the CEBIT).
For the macro economy trade fairs bring together the supply and demand in a concentrated form. They serve for creating or cultivating markets, promoting trade and its transparency and supporting the regional economy of the trade fair location.
The microeconomic perspective includes all the trade fair participants that actually do business with trade fairs. For each participant trade fairs fulfil different goals which are described more profoundly in the following.
There are various direct and indirect trade fair participants that are represented in Figure 1. The microeconomic participants are framed by the macroeconomic factors that shape the industry. The interest groups can be categorized into three groups: the constitutive interest group the secondary interest group and the peripheral interest group. The colours of the shades show the direct influence in the trade fair, the darkest having most influence in it.
Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten
Figure 1: The trade fair economy
The constitutive group includes the organizer, exhibitors and visitors. This group initiates the trade fair and at the same time the two mutual interdependent customer groups (exhibitors and visitors) simultaneously form part of the event.
The secondary interest group consists of participants who are in close contact to the organizer and influence the fair. Depending on the type of event this could be the industry association, the city in which the trade fair takes place (especially if it is a public trade fair organizer) and the venue owner (if it is not the trade fair organizer itself).
The peripheral group does not stand in direct contact to the trade fair organization nor do they exert conceptual influence but can influence the quality of the event. The media, regional industry and service companies such as marketing companies, stand building or logistics make up this last group.
This infers that the quality of the trade fair event depends on a number of different variables. Most importantly it depends on the number, quality and representativeness of exhibitors and visitors and the quality of the trade fair organizer itself.
In the following only the constitutive group, the trade fair organizers, exhibitors and visitors, will be described in more detail. The structure, goals and needs of these groups are analyzed in order to deduce resulting influences on the mobile marketing from that.
The trade fair companies organize and realize trade fairs on a regular basis. They can be differentiated in hall owners, or managers, and sole organizers that rent exhibition halls. Trade fairs can also be organized by associations or other organizations in cooperation with trade fair companies. The goal of trade fair organizers depends on the institutional form. While private companies primarily strive for profit maximization, publicly funded trade fair organizers have to consider the regional economic goals. These consist of positive secondary effects such as image improvement and indirect returns that are induced by the expenditures of the trade fair customers in the region or trade fair city respectively.
The basic function of trade fair organizers is described by Marzin as the “production of optimal conditions to realize the highest efficiency in communication between market participants” which implies that an optimal representation of the supply (exhibitors) and demand (visitors) side are present at the event. While historically this meant providing the exhibiting space, nowadays the preparation, realization and post-processing of all the necessary (information, advertising and marketing communication) services is getting more and more important.
Thus, in a way the trade fair organizer acts as mediator between the two customer groups with the function to create a consistent and attractive event for both of these customer groups. It is the goal to create a representation of the market with a balanced relation of various industry companies while the concept must fulfil the financial and marketing requirements of the organizer.
In the following sub-chapters will focus on the exhibitors. In the first part basics and their marketing goals are explained, in the second part their needs concerning the participation are analyzed.
Exhibitors are all the organizations that rent part of the exhibiting space to present and offer goods or services during the trade fair. As much as four-fifths of the trade fair organizer’s total revenue derives from booth rental and the services provided to exhibitors. Thus, from a financial perspective, it constitutes the most important group.
Exhibitors characterize the program of the trade fair by their number, their competitive position in the industry, their origin as well as booth quality and size. Thereby, the industry leaders are especially important because they act as a main attraction and other exhibitors as well as the visitors make their participation dependent on them.
The participation at trade fairs is expensive for exhibitors and brings high risk because it is difficult to quantify the value and success of the trade fair. This is one of the reasons why trade fairs stand more and more in competition with other more transparent and cheaper marketing instruments. To guarantee a continuing success the organizers must understand and satisfy the various goals of exhibitors.
The exhibitor’s respective trade fair goals can be deduced from the respective company- or marketing goals such as psychographic (e.g. sharpening of the image) and economical (e.g. increased turnover) goals. These include strategic goals such as examining the competitiveness, accessing new export chances and markets and finding new business partners e.g. and operative goals considering the product, communication, price and distribution thus including all the marketing mix instruments (see also table 7 in the appendix).
This multidimensional system of trade fair goals was quantified by AUMA through surveys. 10 goals were discovered to be most important; of these, acquisition of new customers, increase of awareness, CRM, presentation of products and improving the image are the dominant goals (figure 2). The transactional function (contracts and sales) was only named by 68% and is no longer dominant.
Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten
Figure 2: Top ten exhibitor goals
The variety of possible trade fair goals and the inferred complexity of trade fairs represent a challenge to trade fair organizers during their acquisition strategy of new customers. It is important to explain the individual value for each exhibitor and offer services that support the exhibitor achieving its goals. These services are based on the exhibitor’s specific needs described in the following.
The needs relating to a successful participation are commonly related to the phase of the event that is before, during, and after the trade fair.
Before the trade fair the exhibitor has extensive information and communication needs including the needs for basic trade fair information, market research results of past events and individual counselling from the trade fair organizers in order to base the participation decision on it. The technical requirements of exhibitors before and during the event regarding the technical and infrastructural conditions of the trade fair will not be discussed in detail at this point.
During the trade fair the exhibitor’s needs are related to the achievements of their trade fair goals. The most important requirement is having the right quantity and quality of visitors present at the trade fair. The quality of the visitors refers the matching characteristics like their industry affiliation, company and position with the target group of the exhibitor. During the trade fair the exhibitor needs marketing services beyond their advertising on the booth in order to present themselves, attract visitors to the booth the to communicate efficiently with the target group. Also services related to the communication with the press are needed to get media attention beyond the frame of the trade fair.
After the trade fair the exhibitor needs to manage its contacts. In this context also the final trade fair report is of interest.
At all times during the trade fair process the communication and information services are important for the exhibitor in order to successfully realize their trade fair goals. In the future, factors like the integration into the trade fair concept, increased dialogue and networking capabilities before, during, and after the event will also increase in importance as success factors.
The marketing mix of trade fair organizers also needs to be aligned to the goals and needs of visitors which are described in the following.
The visitors are the second customer group as well as the second factor of production of the trade fair organizer. When reduced to the profitability aspects, an individual visitor is nowhere nearly as important as an exhibitor. Still, it is an important target group since exhibitors will only come to the trade fair if visitors of the right quality and quantity attend. Basically, private and professional visitors can be distinguished. The professional visitors can be differentiated between the end-consumer and the reseller.
Each group has own interests and goals that have to be attended to. Even though trade fair organizers try to find them out through market research the visitor’s behaviour is often still considered as the “black box”. However, the AUMA has surveyed and listed the most important goals of professional trade visitors on a basis of a representative survey in Germany (table 1). The basic literature confirms these goals.
Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten
Table 1: Top ten visitor goals
Obtaining information about novelties, products and the general market is the most important goal. During the trade fairs the visitor has the possibility to verify the substance of the marketing communication companies distribute about their products. The samples can be touched, seen, tried, tested, tasted, and examined intensively by the visitor.
While the entertaining character is not prevailing at B2B oriented trade fairs it plays a role at B2C oriented events. Private visitors go to trade fairs for getting information about end products, trends, markets and a potential desire to purchase as well as for passing time and socializing reasons.
Analyzing the goals and behaviour Grimm showed that visitors are not a homogeneous group and thus have different requirements towards trade fairs. Grimm identifies six different groups:
- Heavy visitors seek concrete information about specified exhibitors
- Information seeker seek all kind of information without a specific target
- Unbound visitors are interested in new information and telecommunication services without binding to a specific trade fair or location
- Networker expect lots of interaction with professional or private acquaintances
- Location-oriented visitors basically go to the trade fair because it is not far away from their current whereabouts
- Event-oriented visitors generally have a high interest in the entertaining program
Also, Peters groups visitors by their characteristics like industry, position, role in the decision making process or interest and involvement and ascribes different needs and goals to each group.
These findings suggest that an efficient trade fair participation requires a tailored service and communication strategy for each group.
Also the needs of visitors are related to the phases of the event and it is crucial to understand the phases before, during, and after the trade fair.
Before the trade fair the visitors have high informational needs. Visitors need to get detailed information about the trade fair (such as the main features, opening hours, admission prices, travel and accommodation packages, etc.), the exhibitors (exhibitor portfolio, products and services offered, contact information) and the framework program (topics, participation information). However, recent surveys have shown that only about half of the professional visitors are satisfied with the information given by the trade fair organizer before and during the fair.
During the trade fair the visitors expects an optimal representation of the industry. The organizer must therefore ensure that the stipulated exhibitors are present and that the arranged events take place. Thereby, visitors have financial limits and must comply with their goals in a close timeframe. This puts the efficiency of the trade fair visit in the focus. Efficiency in this context, means complying with the previously defined goals in a minimal amount of time. A lengthy trade fair preparation and any delay caused by long entrance-procedures, inefficient signposting or communication have to be diminished. On average every visitor speaks to 16 exhibitors. That means that there must be an excellent guidance system for the visitor to find the booths. This would increase the communication time, and make the visit more efficient.
During the entire stay visitors should find additional information sources (personal, digital, or print) with all important information they might need during the stay at the fairground and the trade fair city. Additionally, information about post-fair tourist activities, restaurants, hotels, or attractions or trips might be required.
However, the trade fair organizer must manage the information supply carefully since the visitors are confronted by a high number of stimuli (unstructured information) that can lead to an information overload. This can lead to a feeling of resentment and influence the visit negatively.
After the trade fair the visitor needs to manage the contacts he/she made and measure the results, similar to the exhibitors. Also at this point, visitors can be bound to the trade fair organizer with a constant information supply about events and industry news.
Trade fairs are very complex marketing events that need to satisfy the needs of two customer groups and can be used for achieving a diverse range of goals.
The most decisive factor constitutes the acquisition of the right quality and quantity of exhibitors and visitors to optimally represent the supply and demand side of the related industry. But due to the increasing inter- and intra-industry competition this will grow increasingly more difficult. Therefore, the trade fair organizer must move away from the sole renting of exhibition space and position itself as a global marketing partner that attends to the customer needs and requirements before, during, and after the event.
Consequently, the trade fair organizer must employ a customer oriented marketing mix to satisfy their needs and support them reaching their trade fair goals. Thereby, the trade fair company must consider complementing the traditional marketing tools with the use of new information and communication technologies like mobile marketing which make it possible to contact the customers more efficiently and offer them a broader service portfolio.
In order to meet the market challenges and satisfy the customer needs described in chapter 3 the trade fair organizer needs a professional, strategic and operative marketing as it is expected and taken for granted in other industries. This chapter will focus on the unique marketing mix of trade fair organizers. Since mobile marketing would need to be integrated in the traditional marketing mix its analysis is and comprehensive description is important at this point.
 Cf. Kalka (2005a) Elemente der Marketingpolitik auf Geschäfts- und Projektebene, p. 326
 Cf. Witt (2003) Bedeutung von Non-Space-Produkten im Messewesen p. 505
 Cf. Deloitte Consulting GmbH (2008) Alles neu - wie innovativ sind deutsche Messegesellschaften, p. 3; Cf. Delfmann/Arzt (2005) Möglichkeiten zur Generierung von Wettbewerbsvorteilen bei Messegesellschaften p. 124
 Cf. Kalka (2005a) p. 326; Cf. Delfmann/Arzt (2005) p. 109
 Cf. Stoeck (2003) Instrumente der Ausstellerakquisition, p. 763; Cf. Witt (2005) Wettbewerbssituation in Deutschland und Weltweit , p. 14-16
 Cf. Murmann (1999) Mehrstufiger Dienstleistungsinteraktionen: Besonderheiten bei Dienstleistungsunternehmen mit direktem und indirektem Kundenkontakt, p. 17-20; Cf. Bruhn (2003) Qualitätsmanagement für Dienstleistungen, p. 2 et seq.
 Cf. Grimm (2004) Möglichkeiten und Grenzen des Beziehungsmarketing im Messewesen, p. 27-32
 Cf. Schäfer/Toma (2008) Trends und Strategien im Mobile Marketing, p. 27 et seq
 Cf. Focus Medialine (2005) Der Markt der Mobilität – Auto, Verkehr und Umwelt, p. 2-3
 Cf. Schäfer/Toma (2008) p. 21; Cf. Dufft, (2003) Basisreport Mobile Marketing, p. 12
 The main literature for mobile marketing includes: Bauer, H. H./Dirks, T./Bryant, M. D. (eds.) (2008) Erfolgsfaktoren des Mobile Marketing. Springer Verlag, Berlin/Heidelberg; Dushinski, K. (2009) The Mobile Marketing Handbook: A Step-by-Step Guide to Creating Dynamic Mobile Marketing Campaigns; Steimel, et al (2008) Praxisleitfaden Mobile Marketing; Various Studies from the University of Oulu. Cf. http://www.taloustieteet.oulu.fi/henkilokunnan_sivut/markkinointi/tahtinen/julkaisut.html (01.09.2009)
 This data is only statistically because many users have two or more subscriptions whereas for other population groups the penetration rate is smaller. Cf. BMWi (2007) Benchmark Internationale Telekommunikationsmärkte, p. 12; The „Bundesnetzagentur“ even calculated a penetration of more than 130%: C.f. Bundesnetzagentur (2009) Annual Report 2008, n. pag.
 Cf. Schäfer/Toma (2008) p. 18; Cf. Taylor (2007) Global Mobile Advertising Update: Outlook Bright as Inventory Expands, n. pag.
 Informa even estimates over 5 billion subscribers by 2012: Cf. Knight, BizReport (26.01.2009) Informa: 5 billion mobile consumers by 2012, n. pag.; Cf. also du Pre Gauntt, (2007) The Global Opportunity for Mobile Search, n. pag.;
 Cf. Bauer/Neumann/Reichardt (2008b) Wann werden Mobile Marketing Kampagnen Akzeptiert?, p. 130
 Cf. Ivancsits (2006) Mobile Couponing and Ticketing. Instrument des Customer Relationship Management im Mobile Marketing, p. 53
 N.N., Exhibition World (05.2009) The Mobile Generation, p. 19
 Stäcker, tagesschau.de (21.09.2009) D er beispiellose Aufstieg des Mobilfunks in Afrika, n. pag.
 Cf. Oehler, Kölner-Stadt-Anzeiger (25.06.09) Das Jahr der Mobilportale, p. 26; Cf. Yunos et al. (2003) Wireless Advertising’s Challenges and Opportunities, p.30-37; Cf. Wohlfahrt (2002) Wireless Advertising, p. 246
 Cf. Homepage Barack Obama: http://www.barackobama.com/mobile/ (25.06.2009);
Cf. Becker, Mobile Marketing Association (MMA) (2008) Review: Mobile Marketing: Convergence of Media & Mobile, n. pag.
 Cf. Schäfer/Toma (2008) p. 18
 Cf. Lippert (2001) Mobile Marketing, p. 79
 Cf. BVDW (15.07.2009) Mobile Kampagnen steigen 2008 um über 600 Prozent, n. pag.
 Cf. Becker (2008) Review: Mobile Marketing: Convergence of Media & Mobile; Cf. Bauer/Neumann/Reichardt (2004) Bestimmungsfaktoren der Konsumentenakzeptanz von Mobile Marketing in Deutschland, p. 4; Wirtz/Ulrich (2008) Mobile Marketing im Multi-Channel-Marketing – Erfolgsfaktoren der Integration und Koordination, p. 168; Cf. Tähtinen (2005) Mobile Advertising or Mobile Marketing. A Need for a New Concept?, p. 3-8; Cf. also Bauer/Neumann/Reichardt (2008b), p. 131
 Compare a similar approach by Schäfer/Toma (2008) p. 27; Cf. also Bauer/Neumann/Reichardt (2008b) p. 131
 Meffert et al. (2008) Marketing: Grundlagen marktorientierter Unternehmensführung, p. 7 et seq.
 AMA (14.01.2008) The American Marketing Association Releases New Definition for Marketing, n. pag.
 Cf. Becker (2008) Review: Mobile Marketing: Convergence of Media & Mobile, n. pag.; Cf. also Wirtz/Ullrich (2008) p. 169; Cf. Bauer/Neumann/Reichardt (2008b), p. 131; Cf. Arnold et al (2009) Web Marketing All-in-One Desk Reference For Dummies, p. 735 et seq.
 Cf. also in the following Arnold et al (2009) p. 734-735
 Cf. Odlyzko (2001) Content is not king; Cf. Bauer/Neumann/Reichardt (2004) p. 5; Cf. Bauer/Lippert/ Reichhardt/Neumann (2005) Effective Mobile Marketing – Eine empirische Untersuchung, p. 2 et seq.
 Cf. Gröppel-Klein/Broeckelmann (2008) Einflüsse des Mobile Commerce auf das Entscheidungsverhalten, p. 37
 Cf. Knight, BizReport (06.01.2009) Report: Make mobile more interactive and location specific
 Cf. Bauer/ Neumann/Reichardt (2008a) Erfolgreiches Marketing im Mobilfunknetz, p. 111-112; Cf. also Gröppel -Klein/Broeckelmann (2008) p. 37
 Cf. Dufft, (2003) p. 12
 Cf. Hippel (2005) Mobile Branding, p. 113 et seq.
 Cf. Steimel (2008) Praxisleitfaden Mobile Marketing, p. 118
 As will be explained more profoundly in chapter 2.6.1
 Cf. Schäfer/Toma (2008) p. 23
 Cf. Arnold et al (2009) p. 742
 The response element (or “call-to-action-element”) is a reply function that can lead either to a homepage, or gives the opportunity to call a service number, to respond via SMS for requiring more information, or to receive different entertaining content the SMS. Cf. MMA (2009) Mobile Advertising Overview p. 7 - 11
 Cf. Arnold et al (2009) p. 742; Cf. Dufft (2003) p. 25-26
 Cf. Leggat, BizReport (23.07.2008) DMA: Text message campaigns most successful, n. pag.; Cf. Takkula/Tähtinen (2006) The role of mobile adcommunication in business to business marketing. p. 2
 Cf. Arnold et al (2009) p. 746
 Cf. Stockhausen (2009) Mobiles Internet: Entwicklung, Einsatz, Chancen, p. 31; Cf. Beaumont, Telegraph.co.uk (02.04.2009) Yahoo! launches mobile web portal
 Cf. Dushinski (2009) The Mobile Marketing Handbook, p. 38
 Cf. MMA (2009) p. 11-13; Cf. Dushinski (2009) p. 188
 Cf. Steimel et al. p. 30
 Cf. Schäfer/Toma (2008) p. 21
 Cf. Silberer/Schulz (2008) mCRM – Möglichkeiten und Grenzen eines modernen Kundenbeziehungsmanagements, p. 153
 Cf. Wiedmann/Reeh/Schumacher (2008) Near Field Communication im Mobile Marketing, p. 313-314; Cf. Arnold et al (2009) p. 750
 Cf. Wiedmann/Reeh/Schumacher (2008) p. 312; Cf. N.N., NFC-Forum (2007) The Keys to Truly Interoperable Communications, p. 2-3
 Cf. Dushinski (2009) p. 41
 Cf. Haase/Martin (2009) Die Perspektiven des Bluetooth Marketing im Vergleich zu W-LAN und Over-the-AirMobile, p. 43
 Cf. Steimel et al (2008) p. 33, 67 and 76; Cf. also Dushinski (2009) p. 29 et seq.
 Compared to other mass marketing media such as TV commercials, outdoor advertising, internet, or print advertisements.
 Cf. Takkula/Tähtinen (2006) p. 2
 Cf. Steimel et al. (2008) p. 34
 Cf. Bauer/Neumann/Reichardt (2008a) p. 112
 Cf. Steimel et al (2008) p. 33
 For example as during lunch time trade fair organizers send mobile coupons that are redeemable for a rebate at the fairground restaurant.
 For example when the trade fair organizer invites the customer to an upcoming event and includes the number of the booking service as a response element.
 Cf. Steimel et al. (2008) p. 33
 Cf. Laatikainen-Krimmel (2008) Interactive Mobile Marketing - Mobile Operator Shaping the Strategic Network of Mobile Advertising, p. 427
 Cf. also Dufft (2003) p. 12
 Cf. Schäfer/Toma (2008) p. 19-20
 Cf. Arnold et al (2009) p. 750
 Cf. Bauer/Neumann/Reichardt (2008a) Erfolgreiches Marketing im Mobilefunknetz, p. 114
 Cf. N.N., Pressebox (15.02.2006) Fünf Länder haben bei UMTS den Durchbruch geschafft, n. pag.
 Cf. Silberer/Schulz (2008) p. 154
 Cf. Schäfer/Toma (2008) p.25
 Cf. Wiedmann/Reeh/Schumacher 309; Cf. Steimel (2008) p. 110
 Cf. Arnold et al (2009) p. 751
 Cf. EURLEX (31.07.2002) Richtlinie 2002/58/EG, Amtsblatt Nr. L 201 p. 0037 – 0047, n. pag.
 Cf. Federal Trade Commission (2003) Can-Spam Act, n. pag.
 Cf. Arnold et al (2009) p. 754
 Cf. Knight, BizReport (07.04.2009) Can-SPAM, now Can-m-SPAM, n. pag.
 Cf. VZBV (14.07.2009) Soziale Netzwerke mit mangelndem Fair-Play, n. pag.
 Cf. Focus Medialine (2005) p. 2-3
 Cf. Schäfer/Toma (2008) p.21
 Cf. Förster/Kreuz (2006) Marketing-Trends: Innovative Konzepte für Ihren Markterfolg, p. 72-77
 Cf. Schäfer/Toma (2008) p.22
 Cf. Förster/Kreuz (2006) p. 166-167; Cf. Dufft (2003) p. 31
 Cf. Silberer/Wohlfahrt (2001) p. 164; Cf. Kollmann (1998) Akzeptanz innovativer Nutzungsgüter und –Systeme, p.92; Cf. Bauer/Neumann/Reichardt (2005) Driving consumer acceptance of mobile marketing, p. 182
 Cf. Kollmann (2000) p. 35 et seq.
 Cf. Bauer/Neumann/Reichardt (2008b) p. 144-146
 Cf. Rudolph/Emrich (2008) Kundeninteraktion über mobile Services im Handel, p. 275
 Example: The organizers of the SERI that offered the mobile marketing solution developed by Evenium explained in detail the mobile services. Cf. Homepage SERI: http://seri.info/pro/fiche/quest.jsp;jsessionid= 3C13CCEEDA6A26D58E44D009811E7EA6.kl1?locale=1&surveyName=Default&pg2=inscription&pg=visiteurs (30.08.2009)
 Portability includes the provider-independent and cross-platform usability and simplicity of the functions as described by Wiedmann/Reeh/Schumacher p. 314
 Cf. Schäfer/Toma (2008) p. 29
 Cf. Knight, BizReport (05.02.2009) Study: iPhone users more likely to respond to mobile ads, n. pag.
 For example, international Trade Fairs have a large share of international customers. Cf. AUMA (2009) Die Messewirtschaft – Bilanz 2008, p. 20
 Cf. N.N., Exhibition World (05.2008) The mobile generation , p. 19-20
 Cf. Schäfer/Toma (2008) p.21
 Cf. Schäfer/Toma (2008) p.29
 Cf. Schäfer/Toma (2008) p. 24-25
 Cf. Rudolph/Emrich p. 272; Cf. Stoeck (2005) Acquiring exhibitors – tools fort he trade show organizer, p. 673
 Cf. Stockhausen (2009) p. 38
 Cf. Wirtz/Ullrich (2008) p. 166-167
 Cf. Schäfer/Toma (2008) p. 30
 Cf. Wirtz/Ullrich (2008) p. 171-173
 Cf. Möhlenbruch/Schmieder (2002) Chancen des Mobile Marketing im Rahmen von Multichannel-Strategien, p. 29
 Cf. Schögel (1997) Mehrkanalsysteme in der Distribution, p. 204
 Cf. Wirtz/Ullrich (2008) p. 175
 Cf. Wiedmann/Reeh/Schumacher (2008) p. 310
 Cf. Link/Seidl (2008) Der Situationsansatz als Erfolgsfaktor des Mobile Marketing, p. 53-54
 Cf. Takkula/Tähtinen (2006) p. 5
 Cf. Link/Seidl (2008) p. 54 et seq; Cf. also Link (2003) M-Commerce: Die stille Revolution hin zum Electronic Aided Acting, p. 24 et seq.
 Cf. Takkula/Tähtinen (2006) p. 6
 Cf. Ivanscits (2006) p. 53
 Cf. MMA (2009) p. 7
 Cf. Förster/Kreuz (2006) p. 17-21;
 Cf. MMA (2008) Global Code of Conduct, p. 1
 Cf. Förster/Kreuz (2006) p. 23; Cf. Wiedmann/Reeh/Schumacher (2008) p. 311
 Cf. Schwarz (2002) Grundlagen des Permission Marketing, p. 985; Cf. Ivancsits (2006) p. 60
 Cf. Rudolph/Emrich p. 268-269
 Cf. Schwarz (2002) p. 291
 Cf. Roduner (2006) The Mobile Phone as a Universal Interaction Device - Are there Limits?, p. 3-4
 Cf. Wiedmann/Reeh/Schumacher (2008) p. 307; Cf. Steimel (2008) p. 109-113
 Cf. Rudolf/Emrich (2008) p. 277; Cf. also Wiedmann/Reeh/Schumacher (2008) p. 312
 As in the examples mentioned by Wiedmann/Reeh/Schumacher (2008) p. 313
 Cf. Kresse (2005) Die Rolle der Verbände in der Messewirtschaft, p. 98 et seq.
 Cf. Bundesministerum der Justiz, Deutsche Gewerbeordnung § 64 Messe, n. pag.
 Cf. AUMA (2008a) Successful Participation in Trade Fairs, p. 25; Cf. UFI, http://www.ufi.org/pages/thetrade fairsector/basicknowledge.aspx#1.2 (24.08.2009); Cf. Kirchgeorg (2003) Funktionen und Erscheinungsformen von Messen, p. 55; Cf. Uhlendorf (2006) Die deutsche Messe- und Ausstellungswirtschaft. Räumliche Standortstruktur- bzw. -entwicklung, Standortbewertung am Beispiel der Messestadt Frankfurt, p. 4-5, etc.; Cf. Peters (1992) Dienstleistungsmarketing in der Praxis – Am Beispiel eines Messeunternehmens, p. 16
 Cf. AUMA (2008a) p. 2, 9; Cf. Wiedmann/Kassubek (2008) Messen und Messemarketing: Morphologische Ansatzpunkte einer aktuellen Veranstaltungsform, p. 13
 Cf. Peters (1992) p. 69-70
 Such as the inter-industry alternatives described above.
 Cf. also in the following Kirchgeorg (2003) p. 57-59, Cf. AUMA (2007) Die Messewirtschaft, Fakten Funktionen, Perspektiven 2007 p.13-15; Cf. N.N., AUMA (2008a), p. 9
 Cf. Roloff, (1992) Die Öffentlichkeitsarbeit von Messegesellschaften, p. 83; Cf. AUMA (2008a) p. 9 et seq.
 Cf. Robertz (1999) Strategisches Messemanagement im Wettbewerb, p. 19
 Own illustration based on Uhlendorf (2006) p. 7; Robertz (1999), p. 34-42; Freyer (2001) Tourismus, Einführung in die Fremdenverkehrsökonomie, p. 32; Cf. Zygojannis (2005) Akteure der Messewirtschaft, p. 31
 Cf. Grimm (2002) Kundenbedürfnisse & Kundenorientierung im Messewesen, p. 1; Cf. Robertz (1999) p. 15
 Cf. Robertz (1999) p. 41
 Cf. Peters (1992) p. 25; Cf. Neglein (1992) Das Messewesen in Deutschland. p. 23
 Cf. Güllemann (2004) Veranstaltungsmanagement und Recht, Vertrags- und Haftungsfragen bei Veranstaltungen, Events, Messen und Ausstellungen, p. 107
 Cf. Taeger (1993) Messemarketing – Marketing – Mix von Messegesellschaften unter Berücksichtigung wettbewerbspolitischer Rahmenbedingungen p. 37-39; Cf. Kirchgeorg (2003) p. 60-62
 Cf. Witt (2005) p. 7; Cf. Robertz (2003) Koalitionen als Herausforderungen des strategischen Messe-managements, p. 569; Cf. Kirchgeorg (2003) p. 59
 Marzin (1992) Produktgestaltung und Produktpflege als Aufgabe von Messegesellschaften, p. 37; Cf. Peters (1992) p. 29, 81-83
 Cf. Kirchgeorg (2003) p. 60-64; Cf. Stoeck/Schraudy (2003) Messen auf dem Weg zum integrierten Kommunikationsdienstleister, p. 230 et seq.
 Cf. Meffert (2003) Ziele und Nutzen der Messebeteiliugung von ausstellenden Unternehmen und Besuchern, p. 1153; Cf. Stoeck/Schraudy (2003) p. 231-232
 Cf. Zygojannis (2005) p. 38
 Cf. AUMA (1996) AUMA-Leitsätze zur Typologie von Messen und Ausstellungen, p. 2;
 Cf. Stoeck (2003) p. 763
 Cf. Kalka (2005b) Produkt- und Servicepolitik, p. 344
 Cf. Reinhard (2003) Multiplikatorenmanagement von Messegesellschaften. In: Handbuch Messemanagement, p. 457; Cf. Fuchslocher (2003) Ausstelleranalysen als Instrument des Messe-Controlling, p. 343-344
 Cf. Selinki/sperling (1995) Marketinginstrument Messe - Arbeitsbuch für Studium und Praxis, p. 70
 Cf. Taeger (1993) p. 66; Cf. Witt (2005) p. 15-16
 Cf. Meffert (2003) p. 1154-1155
 Cf. AUMA (2008a) p. 11; Cf. also Peters (1992) p. 75-77
 Based on the three phases of the service creation: Firstly the resource phase (before) which is marked by the ability and willingness to provide the trade show service process; Secondly the creation phase (during) in which the service is created and the external factors (exhibitors, visitors) are integrated; Thirdly the conclusion phase (after) in which the results are quantified and qualified. Cf. Roberts (1999) p. 15; Cf. Kirchgeorg (2003) p. 62-64;
 That is, the trade fair topic and industry orientation, timeframe, expected size, expected target audience, framework program, prices and conditions, marketing services, etc.
 Cf. Peters (1992) p. 82-83
 Cf. Peters (1992) p. 81, 83
 Cf. Stoeck/Weiss (2003) CRM im Messewesen – Beziehungsmanagement in der Nachmessephase, p. 862; Cf. Peters (1992) p. 25, 81-82
 Cf. Fuchslocher (2003) p. 346 et seq.
 Cf. Kromer von Baerle/Müller (2003) Instrumente der Besucherakquisition, p. 775
 Cf. Kromer von Baerle/Müller (2003) p. 775
 Cf. Roloff (1992) p. 72; Cf. Peters p. 27 and 66-72; Cf. Grimm (2002) p. 7
 Cf. AUMA (2008a) p. 22;
 Cf. Taeger (1993) p. 125
 E.g. the mainly B2C-oriented event Gamescom: Cf. Homepage Gamescom 2009 (Koelnmesse): http://gamescom.de/diemesse/entertainment_area/index.php (11.08.2009); Cf. Grimm (2002) p. 5
 Cf. Peters (1992) p. 70;
 Cf. Grimm (2002) p. 10-14; Cf. Meffert (2003) p. 1154
 Cf. Grimm (2002) p. 12-13
 Cf. Peters (1992) p. 66-67
 Cf. Meffert (2003) p. 1154
 Cf. Fuchslocher/Hochheimer (2000) Messen im Wandel – Messemarketing im 21. Jahrhundert, p. 106; Cf. Grimm (2002) p. 4-7
 Cf. Kromer von Baerle/Müller (2003) p. 776-777
 Cf. AUMA (2008b) Einstellungen von Entscheidern zum Messebesuch, p.30
 Cf. Peters (1992) p. 64 et seq.
 Cf. Uhlendorf (2006) p. 159
 Cf. Grimm (2002) p. 10
 Cf. Grimm (2002) p.14-16; Cf. Kromer von Baerle/Müller (2003) p. 779
 Cf. AUMA (2008b) p. 27
 Cf. Peters (1992) p. 52-57
 Cf. Grimm (2002) p. 2; Cf. Kromer von Baerle/Müller (2003) p. 779-780
 Cf. Grimm (2002) p. 37-39
 Cf. Kromer von Baerle/Müller (2003) p. 781-782; Cf. Stoeck (2003) p. 765
 Cf. Taeger (1993) p. 152-153
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