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Thesis (M.A.), 2004, 182 Pages
Interest in emotions within organisation increased in the last years. However, research in this field is scarce. In the discussion about emotions in organisation the increasing number of multicultural teams is adding an additional variable: culture, making research even more complicate. Practitioners report that where culture meets conflicts accompanied by negative emotions such as anger occur. However, also positive emotions like happiness may occur, having a positive influence on motivation and enhance cohesion, what may be considered as benefit in multicultural teams.
Although anger as well happiness are considered as universally experienced emotion, there is some evidence that the causes, expression, and the behaviour which follows anger and happiness are culturally influenced.
In multicultural teams the knowledge about the antecedents of these two emotions and the following behaviour seems to be especially important as on one hand misunderstandings and conflict connected with anger, may have serious social consequences reducing performance or even resulting in contra productive behaviour threatening the organisation, and on the other hand experience of success and good communication, enhancing team collaboration, seems to be connected with happiness.
This thesis aims to contribute to a better understanding with regards the culturally-influenced antecedents of the two emotions anger and happiness as well as about the resulting behavioural consequences in multicultural team settings.
The two research questions guiding this work are:
1. In which multicultural team situations do the emotions anger and happiness arise?
2. Which are the antecedents, in team settings, of the two emotions and which is the resulting behaviour respectively consequences that follows?
Ahead, the Theoretical Part should provide the reader a basic introduction about emotions and the connected relevant factors like cognition, sociality and culture with regard to the research questions. Offering a working definition of culture and emotion, the attempt to illustrate the role of emotion in multicultural team settings as well the discussion about the discrepancy of expectation and of expression regarding emotions throughout cultures, should make the reader more sensible about a) the possible detected differences in antecedents and behavioural consequences and b) their impact in multicultural teams.
In Chapter One a discussion about the two sides of multicultural team performance and the connected role of emotion is presented. Communication and connected misunderstandings get hereby special attention.
Chapter Two should bring the reader in the position to come to a better understanding about the complex construct: emotion and its connection with cognition, sociality and culture, to get a feeling about the importance emotions may play in multicultural teams.
The Empirical Part consists in the study conducted in a South Tyrolean (North Italy) work environment, revealing as well great similarity in both antecedents and behavioural consequences of the researched emotions anger and happiness; however, identifying fine culturally-related differences based on different cultural emphasis on values.
Inhaltsverzeichnis:Table of Contents:
3.STRUCTURE OF THESIS3
1.PERFORMANCE OF MULTICULTURAL TEAMS4
1.1Positive impact on performance5
1.1.1Positive cognitive outcomes and better manoeuvring in a global business world7
1.1.2Success experience: Motivation and enhancement of team cohesion11
1.1.3The role of positive emotion14
1.2Negative impact on performance17
1.2.1Low performance and conflict due to communicational problems and misunderstandings23
1.2.2The role of negative emotion41
2.EMOTIONS: AN ATTEMPT FOR CLASSIFICATION44
2.1Definition of emotion44
2.1.1Emotion & cognition50
2.1.2Emotion & social context57
2.1.3Emotion & cultural context62
2.2Emotions and impact on individual and social behaviour70
2.2.1Expectation of emotion70
2.2.2Expression of emotion76
1.1.2Advantages- disadvantages with regard to the research aim85
1.2.1Overview about the research sample: Team members90
1.2.2Presentation of the qualitative and quantitative tools used in the study91
1.2.3Sequence of research96
1.3.1Results: anger antecedents-consequences101
126.96.36.199RESULTS: PROJECTIVE TECHNIQUE ANGER101
188.8.131.52.1Antecedents of the emotion anger101
184.108.40.206.2Behaviour which followed the emotion anger103
220.127.116.11.3Taking a different view point 104
18.104.22.168.4Influence of the single behaviour on the team as a whole106
22.214.171.124.5Additional data 108
126.96.36.199RESULTS: INTERVIEWS - ANGER108
188.8.131.52RESULTS: LIST - ANGER113
1.3.2Results: happiness antecedents-consequences116
184.108.40.206RESULTS: PROJECTIVE TECHNIQUE - HAPPINESS116
220.127.116.11.1Antecedents of the emotion happiness116
18.104.22.168.2Behaviour/Reaction following the emotion happiness118
22.214.171.124.3Taking a different view point 119
126.96.36.199.4Influence of the single behaviour on the team as a whole121
188.8.131.52.5Additional data 123
184.108.40.206RESULTS: INTERVIEWS - HAPPINESS123
220.127.116.11RESULTS: LIST - HAPPINESS127
1.3.3Concrete results: commonness - differences129
18.104.22.168COMMONNESS ANTECEDENTS: ANGER130
22.214.171.124COMMONNESS ANTECEDENTS: HAPPINESS130
126.96.36.199OTHER INTERESTING THINGS133
2.DISCUSSION AND IMPLICATIONS FOR THEORY AND PRACTICE135
3.DIRECTIONS FOR FUTURE RESEARCH142
ATTACHMENT 1: Standardised introduction (English version)144
ATTACHMENT 2: Standardised introduction (German version)145
ATTACHMENT 3: Standardised introduction (Italian version)146
ATTACHMENT 4: Pre-tested pictures University Saarbrücken147
ATTACHMENT 5: Questions asked in Part A) Projective Technique (German version)148
ATTACHMENT 6: Questions asked in Part A) Projective Technique (Italian version)148
ATTACHMENT 7: Questions asked in Part B) Face to Face Interview (German version)149
ATTACHMENT 8: Questions asked in Part B) Face to Face Interview (Italian version)150
ATTACHMENT 9: List (German version)151
ATTACHMENT 10: List (Italian version)152
ATTACHMENT 11: Form for answers (English version)153
ATTACHMENT 12: Form for answers (German version)153
ATTACHMENT 13: Form for answers (Italian version)154
ATTACHMENT 14: Categories Antecedents - ANGER154
ATTACHMENT 15: Categories Antecedents - HAPPINESS155
ATTACHMENT 16: Categories Behaviour - ANGER156
ATTACHMENT 17: Categories Behaviour - HAPPINESS158
ATTACHMENT 18: Breakdown results List ANGER159
ATTACHMENT 19: Breakdown results List HAPPINESS159
ATTACHMENT 20: Map from South Tyrol Trentino Veneto160